# Research

### Particle detectors development at KINR

The HEP group has a large experince in detector development.

• Within the group a new type detectors metal-foil detectors (MFD) has been developed. The MFD detectors can be used for detection of charged particles as well as synchrotron radiation. The MFD detectors build in KINR were used for the luminosity and radiation monitoring in the HERA-B and LHCb experiments. The micro-strip MFD with $0.5-1.0\mu m$ thick strips were used for the beam profile monitoring of the synchrotron radiation at PETRAIII in HASYLAB and charged particles at TSR facility in Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik.
• Single- and double-sided radiation hard silicon micro-strip detectors is another type of detectors designed and manufactured in KINR. Those detectors are used for the tracking in many HEP experiments, including HERA-B and LHCb. The group has contributed to the deployment of microstrip detectors at LHCb, namely for the Radiation Monitoring System (RMS) of the Inner Tracker. The contribution included
• design of detector module and strip sensors
• design of support frames/ladders/microcables, cooling and monitoring system
• radiation hardness studies for the silicon wafers and the readout electronics
• performance optimization
• prototype production, assurance of performance and quality with radioactive sources, laser and test beam
• development of software for the data analysis
• For the usage of with the MFD supersensitive charge integrators were developed in KINR. Those charge integrators are capable to operate in ultrahigh vacuum conditions and were used at HERA ring.

### KINR is a member of the LHC-b collaboration

The LHC (Large Hadron Collider) facility in CERN (Geneva) devoted to the investigations of matter-antimatter properties. LHCb (standing for “Large Hadron Collider beauty”) is one of seven particle physics detector experiments collecting data at the LHC. Approximately 840 people from 60 scientific institutes, representing 16 countries form the collaboration who built and operate the detector The group of scientists from KINR participated in LHC-b detector design and creation. The LHCb Collaboration has prepared the detector for the measurements, which have started in 2010. Since 2010 more tha $2fb^{-1}$ of data was collected. The analysis of the data aims to study the CP violation in the decays of the $B$ mesons and search for the Physics Beyond the Standard Model. The studies can help to explain the Matter-Antimatter asymmetry of the Universe.
The scientists of KINR participated in detector development, operation, upgrade and data analysis. The most significant contributions were done to the devlopment and support of Radiation Monitoring System (RMS) of the Inner Tracker and the analysis of CP violation in the $B\rightarrow \gamma \phi$ decays. The current activities are related to th upcoming detector upgrade and the analysis of the collected data.

### KINR is a member of the ZEUS collaboration

ZEUS is a collaboration of about 450 physicists who are running a large particle detector at the electron-proton collider HERA at the DESY laboratory in Hamburg. The ZEUS detector is a sophisticated tool for studying the particle reactions provided by the high-energetic beams of the HERA accelerator. Thus the participating scientists are pushing forward the knowledge of the fundamental particles and forces of nature, gaining unsurpassed insight into the exciting laws of the microcosm.
The scientists of KINR participated in data analysis and software development. The most significant contributions were done to the studies of strange and charm baryon properties and the optimisation of tracking.

### KINR is a member of the HERA-B collaboration

HERA-B is a large-aperture high-rate spectrometer built for studies of collisions of 920 GeV protons with the nuclei of target wires positioned in the halo of the HERA proton beam. HERA-B was optimized to measure CP-violation in decays of B mesons into the so-called “golden decay mode”: $B\rightarrow J/ \psi K^0$. The other goal of the experiment was the research of the nuclear environment influence to the processes of strange-, charm- and beauty- quarks production. In the HERA-B the multi-target regime at the proton storage ring has been used for the first time. The ambitious goals required advances in radiation-hard technologies, the development of a sophisticated first level trigger and the construction of the first large integrated multi-level switch-based data acquisition and high-level trigger system. The experiment is located at the proton-electron accelerator HERA at DESY in Hamburg, Germany. The collaboration consists of 32 institutes and about 250 collaborators from 13 countries.
The scientists of KINR participated in the construction and data analysis. Substantial contribution of the group of KINR scientists was to ensure high-precision of the cross-section measurements of different processes. For the luminocity measurements/monitoring metal-foil detectors (MFD) , developed in KINR, were used. In addition, the cross sections of strange-, charm-, beauty- mesons and hyperons were measured in the reactions of 920 GeV protons with light, medium and heavy nuclei and the new limits on the pentaquark cross sections were set.

### D0 collaboration

The DØ Experiment consists of a worldwide collaboration of scientists conducting research on the fundamental nature of matter. The experiment is located at the world’s premier high-energy accelerator, the Tevatron Collider, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois, USA. The research is focused on precise studies of interactions of protons and antiprotons at the highest available energies. It involves an intense search for subatomic clues that reveal the character of the building blocks of the universe.
The task of the KINR scientists in the frame of the DØ collaboration is the theory development and the development of reconstruction of quark-gluon plasma signals.

### CBM collaboration

The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI (Darmstadt) is devoted to the search quark-gluon plasma, a new state of matter, which expected to be created in high-energy heavy ion collisions. The fixed-target heavy-ion synchrotron SIS-300 at FAIR will give the unique opportunity for the phase diagram exploration in the region of high baryon chemical potentials with its high beam intensities and beam energies up to 45 GeV/nucleon.
The task of the KINR scientists in the frame of the CBM collaboration is the theory development and the development of reconstruction of quark-gluon plasma signals.

### MEDIPIX3 collaboration

The MEDIPIX3 collaboration develops a self-named detectors. Medipix3 is a CMOS pixel detector readout chip designed to be connected to a segmented semiconductor sensor. Like its predecessor, Medipix2, it acts as a camera taking images based on the number of particles which hit the pixels when the electronic shutter is open. However, Medipix3 aims to go much further than Medipix2 permitting colour imaging and dead time free operation.
The MEDIPIX detectors are used in the group for the studies of the excited nuclei states and nuclear reactions.